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威斯敏斯特宫 (英語:Palace of Westminster):从皇宫到國會大厦

发表于 2020-9-27 01:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
威斯敏斯特宫 (英語:Palace of Westminster, 或譯作 西敏宫),又稱國會大厦(Houses of Parliament),位於英國倫敦西敏市,是英國國會(包括上議院和下議院)的所在地。西敏宮坐落在泰晤士河西岸,接近白廳範圍內的其他政府建築物。西敏宮是哥德復興式建築的代表作之一,1987年被列为世界文化遗产。西北角的钟楼就是著名的大本钟所在地。


鸟瞰 威斯敏斯特宫,西敏寺(左下角),横跨泰晤士河的威斯敏斯特桥(左中)。
 楼主| 发表于 2020-9-27 01:49 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-9-27 01:51 编辑

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-9-27 01:51 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-9-27 06:00 编辑

大笨钟 (英語:Big Ben,或譯作大本钟)是倫敦西敏宫北端鐘樓的大報時鐘的暱稱,也常代指该钟所在的钟楼伊丽莎白塔 。钟楼高320英尺(约合97.5米),是世界第三高钟楼。

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-9-28 08:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-9-28 08:47 编辑

1973年 邮票一黄一黑实际上是一左一右。。

黄色背景是从白厅(英語:Whitehall) 的视野。白厅是英国政府中枢的所在地,包括英国国防部、皇家骑兵卫队阅兵场和英国内阁办公室在内的诸多部门均坐落于此,因此“白厅”一词亦为英国中央政府的代名词。(zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/白廳)

黑色背景是从米尔班克(英語:Millbank)的视野。米尔班克位於泰晤士河沿岸。泰特不列颠(英語:Tate Britain)美术馆位於米尔班克。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-9-28 08:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-9-28 08:48 编辑

2007年2020年 各一枚邮票是泰晤士河畔的景色。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-9-28 08:44 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-9-28 08:49 编辑

旧宫院(Old Palace Yard)。

During the time of Edward the Confessor, Old Palace Yard connected the Palace of Westminster with Westminster Abbey, and was a quiet secluded spot where one could meditate or rest.

To the north of the Yard is St Stephen's Entrance, the public entrance into the Palace, as well as the great South Window of Westminster Hall. Standing near this window and facing away from it is a bronze equestrian statue of Richard Coeur de Lion (King Richard I, also known as "Richard the Lionheart"). Created by Baron Carlo Marochetti, the statue was completed in 1856 and installed in its present location in 1860. The eastern side of Old Palace Yard is defined by the West Front of the Palace, which is part of the precincts of the House of Lords; the carriage porch of the Peers' Entrance marks the middle of this frontage, and the Victoria Tower its southern end. (zh.wikipedia.org/old palace yard)
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-4 00:54 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-10-4 01:07 编辑

1961年 这枚邮票我没有威斯敏斯特大厅极限明信片。

Westminster Hall is the oldest building on the Parliamentary estate. What makes it such an astonishing building is not simply its great size and the magnificence of its roof, but its central role in British history. In and around the Hall, grew up the major institutions of the British state: Parliament, the law courts and various government offices.

Closely involved in the life of the nation since the 11th century, a journey through the Hall's past is a journey through 900 fascinating years of our history. (parliament.uk)
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-4 00:55 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-10-4 01:10 编辑


St Stephen's Hall stands on the site of the royal Chapel of St Stephen's, where the House of Commons sat until the Chapel was destroyed by the fire of 1834.
The hall closely matches the dimensions of the old Chapel, being 29 metres (95 feet) long and 9 metres (30 feet) wide. Brass studs in the floor mark the former position of the Speaker's Chair and the Table of the House, and two brass tablets in the wall at the opposite end mark the position of the screen which separated the lobby from the Chamber.

St Stephen's Hall was in fact used by the House of Commons on the first day of each session from 1945 to 1950, during the rebuilding of the bombed Commons Chamber. In 1960, the whole Hall was renovated and the war damage repaired.

Statues of famous parliamentarians face one another on either side of the Hall; these include John Hampden, Robert Walpole, William Pitt, Charles James Fox. On either side of the doorways are statues of early Kings and Queens of England.

At the east and west ends of the Hall are two large mosaic panels by R. Anning Bell relating to the founding of the earliest Chapel by King Stephen and its rebuilding by Edward III. The mosaic at the west end, unveiled in 1926, portrays Edward III approving the plans for the Chapel and handing them back to his master mason, Michael of Canterbury, with representatives of medieval craftsmen standing beside him. The panel at the east end depicts St Stephen holding a stone, in allusion to his martyrdom, with King Stephen and Edward the Confessor at his sides, and was unveiled a year earlier.

The paintings on the walls depict various important events in British history, while the ten stained-glass windows, five on either side, depict the arms of various parliamentary cities and boroughs; these were damaged in air raids during the Second Word War and since restored. (parliament.uk)
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-5 13:04 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-10-8 14:44 编辑

中央大厅是国会大厦的核心。 它位于下议院和上议院之间。

Central Lobby is at the heart of the Houses of Parliament. It sits between the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

Central Lobby was designed by Charles Barry as a meeting place for Members of both Houses, and where MPs can meet their constituents. It is a lofty stone octagon with an intricately tiled floor, and a rich mosaic-covered vault. The very distinctive Central Tower is built over the Central Lobby, which forms the crossroads of the Palace: the spot where corridors from the Lords, Commons, and Westminster Hall meet.

The arches surrounding the high windows of the Lobby are decorated with statues of kings and queens of England and Scotland from Edward I. Over each of the four exits from the Lobby are four large mosaic panels, depicting in turn the patron saint of each of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom: St George for England, St David for Wales, St Andrew for Scotland and St Patrick for Northern Ireland. There was a long drawn-out controversy over the panels, mainly on grounds of expense. St George was installed in 1870 and St David in 1898, but it was not until the early 1920s that the quartet was completed.

Arch on the right shows mosaic of St Andrew for Scotland, as does the postcard. St Andrew the Fisherman stands with his net over his arm, and his staff in his right hand. On one side is the figure of St Margaret, Queen of Scotland. In her hands - the black cross known as the Holy Rood of Scotland, which has at its centre a fragment of the True Cross, given to her ancestor by Charlemagne. On the other side stands St Mungo, also called St Kentigern, who founded the diocese of Glasgow. The salmon at his feet with a ring in its mouth refers to a legend in which the saint miraculously saved an unfaithful wife from the anger of her royal husband. Behind is the X-shaped cross on which St Andrew was said to have been martyred. Andrew was one of the Christian Apostles, the brother of Simon Peter: but his later history is obscure.

Unfortunate experiences with frescoes at the Palace of Westminster led the Fine Arts Commissioners to change their original plan, and commission mosaics for the four patron saints in the Central Lobby. Interest in mosaics in the 19th Century had been growing, fuelled by the enthusiasm of Dr Salviati, the man responsible for restoring the mosaics at St Mark's in Venice. Dr Salviati's firm was then commissioned by the Fine Arts Commission to undertake the implementation of mosaics in Central Lobby - from the designs of Sir Edward Poynter (1836-1919). Saint George and Saint David were installed in 1869.

However, by the 1920s the decoration of the Central Lobby had fallen into abeyance, and Dr Salviati had died. So the commission for the remaining two Patron Saints was awarded to Robert Anning Bell (1863-1933), who was also responsible for two large mosaics in St Stephen's Hall. Bell worked on the spot, rather than in the studio, and the mosaics of Saint Andrew and Saint Patrick were finally unveiled in 1923.

Middle arch shows mosaic of St David for Wales. Left arch shows mosaic of St Patrick for Northern Ireland.

Central Lobby is also a testament to the struggle for women's suffrage in the 20th century. (parliament.uk)
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-8 14:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-10-11 01:55 编辑

英国下议院(英語:House of Commons of the United Kingdom),直譯為平民院或庶民院,是英國國會的下议院。
英國國會由三大部份組成,它們分別是君主、作為上院的上议院,以及作為下院的下议院,當中又以下议院最具影響力。下议院是一個透過民主選舉產生的機構,目前內有650名成員,稱為國會議員,常用的英文簡寫則是「MP」(Members of Parliament)。下议院議員是經由多數制選出,國會每屆不可長於5年,5年之內就要宣佈解散,而國會解散之時,也就是下議院議員任期的終結。自1950年來每一位下議院議員都是由一個選區的選民選出,議員當選後,也就在議會代表該選區。現今聯合王國政府的內閣閣臣,絕大部份皆來自下院,而自1902年起,歷任的首相也同樣是下議院議員。惟在1963年的時候,來自上議院的亞歷克·道格拉斯-休姆伯爵獲任命為英國首相,不過,他在任命後不久,即放棄貴族爵位,並成功以亞歷克·道格拉斯-休姆爵士之身份選入下議院。
下議院大約在14世紀出現,並且一直延續至今。在歷史上,下議院的權力曾遠遜於上議院,時至今日,下議院在兩院中佔主導地位。現時下議院的立法權力能夠超越上議院,而根據《1911年國會法令》(Parliament Act 1911),上院駁回大部份法案的權力被削減為僅僅拖延法案通過。此外,英國政府亦需要向下議院負責,首相如果失去下議院的支持,就要下野。
下議院之官式全稱為「尊貴的與會大不列顛及北愛爾蘭聯合王國下議院議員」(The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled)。坊間一直以為,下議院的英文「House of Commons」中,「Commons」一字乃來自英文「commoners」(解為庶民),反映下議院議員盡皆庶民出身,以區別由貴族所掌的上議院。不過,這種解釋背後沒有史實支持,其實「Commons」一字語出諾曼法語的「communes」,意指議員們所代表的地區,具地理意味。上、下兩議院皆設於倫敦西敏市西敏宮內,而每次會議時,議事廳內必置有一權杖,以彰顯王權。(zh.wikipedia.org/英国下议院)

The House of Commons mace is a silver gilt ornamental club of about five feet in length, dating from the reign of Charles II. On each day that the House is sitting the mace is carried to the Chamber at the head of the Speaker's procession by the Serjeant at Arms. It is placed on the table of the House, except when the House is in committee, when it rests on two brackets underneath the table. (parliament.uk)
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-11 01:39 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-10-11 01:48 编辑

英國上议院(英語:House of Lords of the United Kingdom),直譯為貴族院,是英國國會的上议會。英國國會同時也由英國君主與下议院組成。上议院有大約700多名非選舉產生之议員,當中包括英國國教會的26名大主教或主教(即靈職议員)以及600多名貴族(即俗職议員)。靈職擔任者於其保有神職身份時續任,而俗職為終身職。
上议院始創於14世紀,1544年始用「上议院」(House of Lords)之名。1649年曾一度遭到由英國內戰取得政權的英格蘭聯邦廢止,復於1660年。上议院之權力曾一度凌駕由選舉產生的下议院。然而,自19世紀以後,上议院之權勢逐漸衰退,至今已遠不如由選舉產生之下议院。

上议院與下议院同於西敏宮召開會議。上议院议事廳的[裝潢]富麗堂皇,與布置簡單的下议院议事廳恰成對比。上议院議事廳內的長椅鬃成紅色,故上议院有時被稱為「紅廳」(Red Chamber)。羊毛袋(Woolsack)設於廳內正中,支持政府的議員坐在羊毛袋右方的座位上,而反對派則坐在左邊。 中立議員則坐在羊毛袋的對面座位。(zh.wikipedia.org/英國上議院)
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-10-11 01:50 | 显示全部楼层
The mace (權杖) in Parliament is the symbol of royal authority and without it neither House can meet or pass laws.

The Lords uses two maces, one dating from the time of Charles II and another from the reign of William III. One of the maces accompanies the Lord Speaker into the Chamber and is placed on the Woolsack whenever the House meets. The mace is absent from the Lords during the State Opening when the Monarch is in the Chamber in person. (parliament.uk)
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发表于 2020-10-14 12:41 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2020-11-19 18:13 | 显示全部楼层



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 楼主| 发表于 2020-11-21 13:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 ngsunyu 于 2020-11-21 14:01 编辑

jamestang 发表于 2020-11-19 18:13

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